This can be reproduced by simply telneting the faulty Exchange 2013 server. After entering MAIL FROM: into the SMTP syntax, the error occurs and is shown numerous times throughout the receive connector protocol logs on the frontend transport stack.
After further investigation I found out that majority of the Server Components for the faulty Exchange Server were in an inactive state.
To bring the server back to an active state, ServerWideOffline was set to Active which resumes all services using a requester of Maintenance. This was done with the following command:
Set-ServerComponentState -State Active -Requester Maintenance -Identity AB-EXCH-02 -Component ServerWideOffline
Note: ForwardSyncDaemon and ProvisioningRps is Inactive by default.
After running this command all Exchange 2013 components were back to an active state apart from components disabled by default.